The U.S. Copyright laws initially were created to "Promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries" (United States Constitution, Article I, Section 8).
Once a work becomes tangible (that it, it is saved as a document, artwork, sculpture, film, sound byte, etc.), it is copyrighted. Formal copyright registration enhances the legality of creative work's ownership. Ideas are not copyrighted until they are written down. Facts and slogans cannot be copyrighted.
According to 17 U.S.C. § 102, copyrighted works include:
According to 17 U.S.C. § 106, copyright owners have the exclusive right to:
In the beginning, copyright law was intended to cover only books. In the 19th century, the law was expanded to include maps, charts, engravings, prints, musical compositions, dramatic works, photographs, paintings, drawings, and sculptures. Motion pictures, computer programs, sound recordings, dance, and architectural works became protected by copyright in the 20th century.
Copyright protection falls under title 17, U.S. Code, and covers "original works of authorship."
So what makes a work original?
What is Covered? List Source: CSUDH University Library - Copyright Guide - What is covered by copyright?
Digital Rights Management (DRM) is a system that encrypts electronic data so that it can only be accessed by authorized users. This method of "digitally watermarking" resources protects creators' intellectual property from being accessed and shared freely among Internet users.
Scholarly articles that are protected by DRM cannot be saved and emailed; rather, each person who needs a specific article must access it individually.